Extramural studies: Physics

To complete homework (answer tests) and to perform virtual laboratory works, a student should go to the website of the “Distance Learning ONAFT” Center


Enter your username and password (ask at your dean’s office). Go to the site of the “Physics” course

Information recourses

  1. Lecture notes on the physics course “Mechanics. Molecular Physics and Thermodynamics, Liquids” for students studying under the bachelor’s program / Comp. A.E. Sergeeva, S.N. Fedosov. – Odessa: ONAFT, 2020.– 53 p.
  2. Methodical instructions “Theory of errors and its application for processing experimental data” / Contr. S.N. Fedosov, A.E. Sergeeva – Odessa: ONAFT, 2019, 21 p.
  3. Robert G. Brown Introductory Physics I, Elementary Mechanics (2013) Durham: Duke University Physics Department, 661 p.
  4. Hans C. Ohanian, John T. Markert, Physics for Engineers and Scientists (2007) New York • London: W. W. Norton & Company, Inc., 808 p.


Questions for exams in the “Physics” course

1st semester


  1. The subject of physics. Research methods in physics. Physical laws and their importance. Physics as the basis of natural and technical sciences.


Kinematics of the point mass and translational motion of the body

 Reference systems. Traveled distance. Displacement vector.

  1. Mean (average) and instantaneous velocities, mean and instantaneous accelerations, full acceleration and its components.
  2. Uniform motion, uniformly accelerated and uniformly slowed motion.


Dynamics of a point mass

  1. Mass, body momentum, force.
  2. Newton’s laws (the 1st, the 2nd, and the 3rd laws).
  3. Types of forces (gravitational forces, elastic forces and friction forces).
  4. Law of the momentum conservation.
  5. Energy, work, power.
  6. Mechanical energy: kinetic energy and potential energy.
  7. Law of energy conservation and transformation. Conservative and dissipative forces.
  8. Application of the dynamics laws for machines and mechanisms in the food industry.

 Mechanics of a solid body

  1. Kinematics of a rotating body. Angular velocity and angular acceleration. Relationship between linear and angular quantities.
  2. Moment of inertia of the point mass. Moment of inertia of the body.
  3. The kinetic energy of the rotational motion.
  4. Torgue. Equation of the rotational motion dynamics.
  5. Angular momentum. Law of the angular momentum conservation.
  6. Operation principle of centrifuges and separators; their application in the food industry.

 Elements of fluid mechanics

  1. Pressure in liquids. Continuity equation. Bernoulli’s equation and its consequences. Turbulent and laminar flows. Toricelli’s and Poiseuille’s formulas. The law of Stokes. Viscosimeters.


  1. Laws of ideal gases. Isoprocesses The basic equation of the molecular kinetic theory of gases.
  2. Mean free path. Vacuum.

 Transport phenomena

  1. Diffusion. Thermal conductivity. Internal friction (viscosity).
  2. Application of the transport phenomena in food processing: heating, sterilization, freezing.

 Real gases and liquids. Phase transformations

  1. Aggregate states of matter. Real gases, van der Waals’s equation. Internal energy of the real gas.
  2. Properties of liquids. Surface tension. Wetting. Capillary phenomena. Pressure under the curved liquid surface.
  3. Phase transitions of the 1st and the 2nd order. State diagram.


  1. The internal energy of gases. The 1st law of thermodynamics.
  2. Heat capacity. Molar and specific heat capacity.
  3. Adiabatic process.
  4. The 2nd law of thermodynamics.
  5. Circular processes (cycles). The operation principle of heat engines.


  1. The interaction of electric charges. Coulomb’s law.
  2. Electric field. Field strength and electric field potential, lines of the field strength.
  3. Work during charge movement in the electric field. Electric field potential. Potential difference. Interrelation between the potential and the field strength.
  4. Types of dielectrics. Piezoelectric and pyroelectric effects. Application of piezo- and pyroelectrics in pressure and temperature sensors.
  5. Conductors in the electric field. Electric capacitance. Capacitor. Electric field energy.


  1. The electric current in conductors; conditions of its existence.
  2. Characteristics of the current (current and current density).
  3. The classical theory of the metals electrical conductivity.
  4. Ohm’s law for a circuit part. The resistance of the conductor.
  5. Current source. Electromotive force (EMF). Ohm’s law for a complete circuit.
  6. Kirchhoff’s rules.
  7. Work and power of the current. Joule-Lenz’s law. Electrical heating in technological processes of food processing and production.
  8. The electric current in gases. Self-sustained discharge and non-self-sustained discharge.
  9. Thermoelectricity. Seebeck’s and Peltier’s phenomena. Thermocouples. Thermoelements.


2nd semester


 Magnetic field

  1. The magnetic field produced by a conductor with the current. Right-hand screw rule. Magnetic field induction vector.
  2. Ampere’s law for the force acting in the magnetic field on a conductor with the current. Lorenz’s force. Electronic oscilloscope and its application.
  3. Circuit with the current in a magnetic field. Magnetic flux. Application of magnetic probes in the food industry technological processes.

 Magnetic properties of matter

  1. Magnetic moments of atoms. Magnetization. Diamagnetism and paramagnetism. Magnetic field strength. The magnetic permeability of the medium. Ferromagnetics and their applications in engineering.

 Electromagnetic induction

  1. Electromagnetic induction. Faraday’s law and the rule of Lenz.
  2. Mutual induction and self-induction.
  3. Transformer. The energy of the magnetic field.
  4. Influence of the electromagnetic field on biological objects.


  1. Oscillations. Equation of the harmonic oscillation. Characteristics of the oscillatory motion (amplitude, frequency, period and phase of oscillations).
  2. Mechanical and electrical free oscillations.
  3. Damped oscillations and forced oscillations. Resonance.
  4. Sinusoidal alternating current. Electromagnetic oscillations.
  5. Wave processes. Wavelength.
  6. Application of electromagnetic oscillations in food processing technologies.
  7. Sound and ultrasound. Application of ultrasound in food processing technologies.
  8. Electromagnetic waves. The scale of the electromagnetic waves. Application of electromagnetic waves in the food industry.


 Elements of geometric optics

  1. Basic laws of geometric optics.
  2. The phenomenon of the total internal reflection. Light guides.
  3. Refraction of light on a spherical surface and in thin lenses.
  4. Construction of images in the lenses. The formula of a thin lens. Refractometers.


 Interference of light

  1. Monochromatism and coherence of light waves. Interference of light.

Interferometers. Interference in thin films. Thin films in nature. Blooming of optical systems.

 Light diffraction

  1. The principle of Huygens – Fresnel. Fresnel’s zone method. Rectilinear propagation of light. Single-slit diffraction and diffraction grating.
  2. Spatial lattice. Diffraction on a spatial lattice. Wulff – Bragg’s formula. X-ray spectral and X-ray structural analysis. The concept of holography.

 Light dispersion

  1. Normal and anomalous dispersion.

 Polarization of light

  1. Natural and polarized light. The law of Malus.
  2. Polarization of light during reflection and refraction at the boundary between two dielectrics.
  3. Double refraction of light by crystals. Nicolas’s prism. Saccharimetry.
  4. Optically active substances. Rotation of the polarization plane. Polarimeters

 Light absorption

  1. The law of the Booger – Lambert. Concentration calorimetry.
  2. The scattering of light. Greenhouse effect.
  3. Application of bactericidal action of the ultraviolet radiation for sanitization of air.


 Heat radiation

  1. Thermal radiation and its characteristics (emission and absorption of energy by bodies). Blackbody.
  2. The laws of Kirchhoff, Stefan-Boltzmann, and Wien for radiation of a blackbody. Planck’s quantum hypothesis.
  3. Application of electromagnetic radiation for the processing of food products and their quality control.
  4. Optical pyrometry. Sources of the heat radiation.

 Types of the photoelectric effect

  1. External photoelectric effect. The laws of the external photoelectric effect, Einstein’s equation for the photoelectric effect.
  2. Internal photoelectric effect. Application of the photoelectric effect.

 Quantum – corpuscular dualism

  1. Mass and momentum of a photon. Light pressure. Compton’s effect. Quantum theory of dualism.


 Structure of an atom

  1. Structure of the atom according to Rutherford’s theory. The discrete spectrum of atoms, discreteness of the states of atomic systems. Bohr’s postulates. The spectrum of the hydrogen atom according to Bohr’s theory.
  2. Quantum numbers of electrons in atoms. Pauli exclusion principle, the electron shells of atoms. Periodic system of elements.
  3. Origin of continuous and characteristic X-ray spectra. The biological effect of X-rays.

 Elements of quantum physics of molecules

  1. Chemical bonds in molecules. Molecular spectra. Raman’s scattering of light. Photochemical reactions. The disintegration of molecules during photoexcitation.

 Elements of solid state physics

  1. Metals, dielectrics, and semiconductors from the point of view of the band theory. Intrinsic conductivity and impurity conductivity of semiconductors.
  2. Contact of electron and hole semiconductors. Semiconductor diodes and transistors.
  3. Microelectronics as the basis of the hardware of technological lines of the food industry.

 Atomic nucleus and elementary particles

  1. The structure of nuclei; nucleons. Nuclear forces. Mass defect and binding energy of the nuclei.
  2. Stable and unstable nuclei. Radioactivity. Law of the radioactive decay. Half-life period. Effect of the ionizing radiation on a living organism.
  3. Characterization of α-, β-, and γ- radiations. Displacement rules and conservation laws. Nuclear reactions.
  4. Chain reaction. Nuclear fission and fusion reactions. Problem of the controlled thermonuclear reactions.
  5. Application of radioactive isotopes in engineering and biology. Environmental problems of nuclear power engineering.
  6. Concept of elementary particles.